Category Archives: Management

Kellblog’s Greatest Hits 2016-2019 per the Appealie SaaS Awards

I’ll be speaking at the APPEALIE 2019 SaaS Conference and Awards in San Francisco on September 25th and I noticed that in their promotions the folks at APPEALIE had assembled their own Kellblog’s Greatest Hits album from 2016 to 2019, complete with its own cover art.

appealie

When I looked at the posts they picked, I thought they did a good job of identifying the best material, so I thought I’d share their list here.  They also called me “a GOAT software blogger” and after playing around with acronyms for about half an hour — maybe Groove, OpenView, AngelVC, Tunguz? — my younger son swung by and said, “they called you a GOAT?  Cool.  It means greatest of all time.”  Cool, indeed.  Thanks.

Here’s the APPEALIE Kellblog’s Greatest Hits 2016-2019 list:

 

My Appearance on the Private Equity Funcast

Who else but my old friend Jim Milbery, a founding partner at ParkerGale, could come up with a podcast called the Private Equity Funcast, complete with its own jingle and with a Thunderbirds-inspired opening?

Jim and I worked together at Ingres back in the — well “pre-Chernobyl” as Jim likes to put it.   When we met, he was a pre-sales engineer and I was a technical support rep.  We’ve each spent over 25 years in enterprise software, in mixed roles that involve both technology and sales & marketing (S&M).  Jim went on to write a great book, Making the Technical Sale.  I went on to create Kellblog.  He’s spent most of his recent career in private equity (PE) land; I’ve spent most of mine in venture capital (VC) land.

With a little more time on my hands these days, I had the chance to re-connect with Jim so when I was in Chicago recently we sat down at ParkerGale’s “intergalactic headquarters” for a pretty broad-ranging conversation about a recent blog post I wrote (Things to Avoid in Selecting an Executive Job at a Startup) along with a lot of banter about the differences between PE-land and VC-land.

Unlike most podcasts, which tend to be either lectures or interviews, this was a real conversation and a fun one. While I’m not sure I like the misparsing potential of their chosen title, Things To Avoid in Selecting an Executive Job with Dave Kellogg, I’ll assume the best.  Topics we covered during the fifty-minute conversation:

  • The pros and cons of CEOs who want to get the band back together.
  • Pros and cons of hiring people who have only worked at big, successful companies and/or who have only sailed in fair weather.
  • The downsides of joining a company that immediately needs to raise money.
  • How CMOs should avoid the tendency to measure their importance by the size of their budget.
  • Should companies hire those who “stretch down” or those who “punch above their weight”?
  • The importance of key internal customer relationships (e.g., the number-one cause of death for the CMO is the CRO) and how that should affect the order of your hires when building a team.
  • Feature-addicted founders and product managers (PMs), technical debt, and the importance of “Trust Releases.”
  • Pivoting vs. “traveling” when it comes to startup strategy.
  • The concept of Bowling Alleys within Bowling Alleys, which we both seem to have invented in parallel.  (Freaky.)
  • The difference between knocking down adjacent markets (i.e., “bowling pins”) and pivots.
  • Corporate amnesia as companies grow and surprisingly fail at things they used to know how to do (e.g., they forget how to launch new products).
  • My concept of reps opening new markets with only a telephone, a machete, and a low quota.
  • My pet peeve #7: salespeople who say it’s impossible to sell into an industry where the founders managed already to land 3-5 customers.
  • The difference between, in Geoffrey Moore terms, gorillas and chimps.
  • How there are riches in the niches when it comes market focus.
  • How feature differentiation can end up a painful axe battle between vendors.
  • Thoughts on working for first-time, non-founder CEOs in both the PE and VC context.
  • The difference between approval and accountability, both in formulating and executing the plan.

Here are some other episodes of the Private Equity Funcast that I found interesting:

So my two favorite podcasts are now The Twenty Minute VC on the venture side and The Private Equity Funcast on the PE side.  Check them both out!

Thanks for having me on the show, Jim, and it was a pleasure speaking with you.

Things to Avoid in Selecting an Executive-Level Job at a Software Startup

This is a sister post to my recent one, Career Decisions:  What to Look For in a Software Startup.  That piece is all about what to look for when considering taking a job at a software startup.  This piece is kind of the opposite:  what to look out for when considering an executive job at a software startup.

This post isn’t simply the inverse of the other and I didn’t approach writing it that way.   Instead, I started blank slate, thinking what are the warning signs that would make me think twice before taking an executive-level job at a software startup.

Before jumping into the list, let me remind you that no startup is perfect and that unless your name is Frank Slootman that you are unlikely to get a C-level offer from a startup that has all eight of the things I say to look for and none of the eight I say to avoid.  The rest of us, to varying degrees, all need to make intelligent trade-offs in facing what is effectively a Groucho Marx problem [1] in our career management.

That said, here’s my list of things to avoid in selecting an executive-level job at a startup:

1. Working for TBH, i.e., working for a boss who is to-be-hired. For example, if a company’s board is leading the search for a new CMO while the CEO slot is also open, the CMO would be working for TBH.  Don’t do this.  You have no idea who the new CEO will be, if you will like them, and whether their first act will be to fire you.  Ignore any promises that “you will be part of the process” in hiring the new boss; you may well find yourself interviewing them as you notice an offer letter sticking out of their backpack, suddenly realizing that you’re the interviewee, not the interviewer.  Read my post on this topic if you’re not convinced.

2. The immediate need to raise money.  Particularly for a CEO job, this is a red flag.  The problem is that unless you are a tier 1 rockstar, investors are not going to want to back the company simply because you’ve arrived.  Most investors will want you to have about a year in the seat before considering investing.  If you’re immediately dispatched to Sand Hill Road in search of capital, you’ll be out pitching the company poorly instead of learning the business and making plans to improve it.  Moreover, to state the obvious, joining a company that immediately needs to raise money means joining a company that’s in the midst of running out of cash.  That means either the company gets lucky and does so (often via an inside round [2]) or it doesn’t and your first quarter on the job will be focused on layoffs and restructuring instead of growth.  Think:  “I love you guys; call me back once you’ve done the round.”

3. Key internal customer TBHs.  For example, the VP of Sales is the VP of Marketing’s key internal customer, so Marketing VPs should avoid taking jobs where the VP of Sales is not in place.  Why?  As your key internal customer, the VP of Sales has a lot of power in both assessing your performance and determining your continued employment [3], so you really want to know if you get along and see eye-to-eye before signing up for a new job.  Moreover, even if you are work-compatible, some Sales VPs like “travel with” their favorite VP of Marketing.  Think:  “Mary’s great.  I just want to work with Joe like I have done at my last two companies.”  Bye Mary.

4. Strategic “traveling” violations.  “Pivot” is one of my favorite startup euphemisms. While many great startups have indeed succeeded on their second try, after a strategic pivot [4], some startups seem to want to make the pivot into an annual event.  Let’s remember that pivots mean strategic failure and the virtual write-down of any VC that went into funding the failed strategy.  While pivots can save a troubled company from continuing to execute a doomed strategy, they’re not something you want to do at all, let alone on a periodic basis.  In basketball, you get called for traveling if you (a) take more than two steps without dribbling or (b) move an established pivot foot.  I call startups for traveling when they (a) do two or more strategic pivots or (b) pivot to a new strategy that has nothing to do with the old one [5] (i.e., moving both feet).

5.  Nth-place Vendors (for all N>=3).  Most high-tech markets have increasing returns effects because customers like to reduce risk by buying from market leaders.  In the early 2000s, these normal increasing returns effects were compounded by network effects [6] in many markets.  Today, machine learning is compounding increasing returns yet again [7].  In short, it sucks to be third in Silicon Valley, it always has, and it’s likely to suck more in the future than it does now.

Therefore avoid working at vendors who are not #1 or #2 in their category.  If you’re considering a #N vendor, then it should be part of it moving to a focus strategy to become #1 at a product or vertical segment.  Don’t get sold the idea that a mega-vendor is going to acquire #4 after being rebuffed by the market leaders or to get a better price.  Mega-vendors greatly prefer to acquire market leaders and recent history has shown they are more than willing to pay up to do so.  Tuck-ins and acqui-hires still happen, but typically for very early-stage companies and not at great valuations.

6. Sick cultures and/or dishonest leaders.  Silicon Valley companies often make a big deal about “culture” but too often they conflate culture with ping pong tables, free lunch, and company parties.  Culture, to me, is the often unwritten code [8] of what the company values and how business gets done.  Alternatively, to paraphrase Henry Ford’s thoughts on quality, culture is what happens when no one is watching.  While many Silicon Valley leaders — going all the way back to HP — are “true believers” trying to build not only unique products but also create unique places to work, there are unfortunately charlatans in our midst.  Some leaders are disingenuous, others dysfunctional, and a few downright dishonest.  If you sense cultural sickness during your interview process, back-checking references, or reading Glassdoor [9], then I’d say tread carefully.

7. Low post-money valuations.  You’ll hear this argument a lot with Nth-place companies:  “well, the good news is we only got an $80M post-money valuation on our last round of $20M, whereas we heard LeaderCo was valued at $240M — so if you come here you’ll start making money off $80M, not $240M.”  At one level, it’s persuasive, especially if you think LeaderCo and NthCo are similar in many respects — “it’s like buying shares at 2/3rds off,” you might think.  But that thinking basically assumes the venture capital market mispriced LeaderCo.  You might justify that position by thinking “valuations are crazy right now” but if LeaderCo got a crazy valuation why didn’t NthCo get one too, raising in the same market?  While some people will try to market low valuations as opportunities, I now see them as problems.

Think not:  wow, what a great arbitrage play.  Think instead:  (a) what don’t I know [10] such that the market priced NthCo at 1/3rd the price of LeaderCo, and (b) what effects that will have on future financing — i.e., it’s likely LeaderCo will continue to have better access to capital going forward.  (Remember, the IPO class of 2018 raised a median of around $300M.)

In olden days, the rule was if the market leader went public at a valuation of $1B, then number two was worth about $500M, and number three $250M (4x, 2x, 1x).  Today, with companies going public later, more access to capital, and stronger increasing returns effects, I think it’s more like $4.5B, $1.5B, and $300M respectively (15x, 5x, 1x).  Given that, and increasing returns, maybe a “crazy” early valuation gap isn’t so crazy after all.

8. First-time, non-founder CEOs.  First-time, founder CEOs are the norm these days and VCs do a good job of helping surround them with a strong executive team and good advisors to avoid common mistakes.  Personally, I believe that companies should be run by their founders as long as they can, and maybe then some.  But when a founder needs to replaced, you get a massive signal from the market in looking at who the company is able to attract to run it.  Back in the day, if you were Splunk, you could attract Godfrey Sullivan.  Today, if you’re Snowflake, you can attract Frank Slootman.

My worry about companies run by first-time, non-founder CEOs [11] is less about the difficulty for the first-timer in transitioning to the CEO job — which is indeed non-trivial — and more about the signaling value about who would, and more importantly, who wouldn’t, take the job.  Experienced CEOS are not in short supply, so if a company can’t attract one, I go back to what don’t I know / what can’t I see that the pool of experienced CEOs does?

That’s not to say it never works — we did a fine job building a nice business at MarkLogic under one first-time, non-founder CEO that I know [11].  It is to say that hiring a non-founder, first-time CEO should prompt some questions about who was picked and why.  Sometimes there are great answers to those questions.  Sometimes, things feel a bit incongruous.

# # #

Notes

[1] Marx often quipped that he wouldn’t want to be a member of any club that admitted him, the rough equivalent to saying that you wouldn’t take a C-level job at any startup that would offer you one.

[2] As one VC friend so tersely put it:  “our job isn’t to put more money into a company, it’s to get other people to put more in at valuations higher than the one we invested at.”  (This somehow reminds me of the  General Patton quote:  “the object of war is not to die for your country, but to make the other bastard die for his.”)

[3] The number one “cause of death” for the VP of Marketing is the VP of Sales.

[4] I particularly like when those pivots are emergent, i.e., when the company is trying one thing, spots that another one is working, and then doubles down on the second thing.

[5] In the sense that they moved an established pivot foot by changing, e.g., both the target customer and the target product.  Changing your strategy to sell a different app to the same buyer, or the same app to a different buyer feels much more like a pivot to me.

[6] Everyone wants to be on the social network that their friends are on, so the more your friends pick network A over B, the more newcomers want to pick network A.  Back when there was competition in consumer social networks, entire high schools went either Facebook or MySpace, but virtually none went both.

[7] Where machine learning (ML) is an important part of the value proposition, you have even stronger increasing returns effects because having more customers, which means having more data, which means having better models, which means producing superior results.

[8] In cases there may be a very public written code about company culture.  But, to the extent the written culture is not the one lived, it’s nothing more than public relations or a statement of aspiration.

[9] While Glassdoor has many limitations, including that reviewers are not verified and that most reviewers are recently-terminated job-seekers (because the requirement to look for a job is to write a review), I still use it in researching companies.  My favorite dysfunctional pattern is a litany of detailed, fact-filled, seemingly sincere negative reviews, followed by a modest number of summary, high-level, HR-buzzwordy positive reviews followed by someone saying “I can’t believe management is feeding positive reviews to people in order to up our ratings.”

[10] An economist friend once taught me that when economists studied established practices in any field, e.g.,  the need for a second-serve (as opposed to just hitting two first serves) in professional tennis, they start out assuming the practice is correct, i.e., that the professionals really do know what they’re doing, and then see if the statistics justify the practice.  One might apply the same philosophy to valuations.

[11] Yes, I was one at MarkLogic.  In terms of signaling value, I was at least CMO of $1B company before starting and while I’d not been a CEO before, I did bring an unusual amount of database domain expertise (i.e., Ingres, Versant) to the party.

Reacting to Feedback as CEO

The other day I saw this tweet from my friend Nick Mehta, CEO of GainSight, and it got me thinking.

feedback

It turns out that in addition to making fun music videos for company events, that Nick and I have another thing in common:  we both wrestle with finding the right balance in listening to feedback.  Since this is a topic I’ve pondered quite a bit over my 12+ years as a startup CEO, I thought I’d share those thoughts in this post.

First, you don’t get to be CEO of a startup by not caring.  You want your company to be great, you want your customers to be delighted, and you want your employees to be happy working at your company.  So I think most CEOs will have that same natural tendency towards immediate action that Nick mentions.

But CEOs who overreact both irritate employees (“so you’ve heard one side of this and it sounds like you’ve already made up your mind”) and, more dangerously, are easily manipulated.  If you find 3 people outside your office before a big meeting, each hoping to the last one to talk to you before it begins, then I’d view that as flashing yellow sign that you might be an overreactor.

On the flip side, there is some chance that the feedback is an outlier, and that reacting to it would be a mistake, particularly in terms of the opportunity cost of not having focused on something more generally important.

Finding that balance in the middle is indeed the hard part.  On one hand, CEOs are action-oriented and if they hear something plausible, they want to immediately dispatch someone to fix it.  On the other, CEOs get lots of feedback and it’s a little too easy to create a platitude shield around yourself that rationalizes feedback before it gets through — e.g., salespeople are never happy with their comp plans, employees generally don’t like their bosses, and customers always want more for their services dollar.  If you gave me 30 minutes I think I could generate about ten platitudes that would screen out 90% of feedback.  And that’s not good either.

So what should you do to find this balance?  Here are some tips:

  • Listen to everyone, all the time.  Ask open-ended questions.  For example:  “how’s your experience been working here”, “what are we like to work with as a customer”,  or “what do you think we can do better.”  Rule 1 is you’re not listening if you’re talking, so speak little and listen a lot.  Try to set up meetings as listening or feedback sessions as opposed to the default that “our CEO wants to come in and talk to you.”  Reframe it:  “our CEO wants to come in and listen to you, hear about your project, etc.”  The more feedback you get the harder it is to overreact to any one piece.
  • Remember that people have good days and bad days so do not overreact to any one incident.  (If someone really unloads on you, listen politely, take notes, and set up a follow-up call in a week or two to check back in.)
  • Listen no matter what you’re hearing.  You might hear things that are factually wrong.  You might hear things you find offensive.  You might hear things you immediately want to explain.  Recognize these as defensive reactions (even if they are appropriate defensive reactions) and remember Rule 2:  defensiveness kills communications.  Shut up, let the other person keep talking, take notes about any points you want to clarify, and discuss them at the end of the conversation.
  • Ask the “dead moose” question.  Is there any issue so big and glaring that we’re afraid to talk about and it’s like a giant dead moose in the middle of the conference room table that we’re all ignoring as we converse?  This gives people permission to put the big, often obvious, but potentially dangerous issues on the table — and get the moose off it)
  • Remember that people sometimes have agendas that shape their feedback.  Not all feedback is “pure” or unbiased in the sense that it’s a neutral voice wanting what it perceives as best for the company.  Maybe a customer is in the middle of negotiating a big contract.  Maybe an employee is angry about having missed a promotion.  Maybe a manager is trying to reorganize a department.  There’s nothing wrong with having an agenda, but it helps to know what it is when processing feedback.  Ask:  is there any bigger picture item that’s shaping this feedback overall?
  • When it comes to employee incidents, remember there are three sides to every story:  yours, mine, and what actually happened.  If you react to the first person you hear, then you’ll be teeing up a race to your office after every dispute because (as with patents) the first one to the office wins.  When faced with interpersonal disputes, remember my friend Martin Cooke’s favorite question:  “so what did Joe say when you spoke to him about this?”  If they’ve not spoken yet, then send them off to do so.
  • Beware hearsay.  It’s not allowed in court, so perhaps it shouldn’t be allowed in your office.  I don’t want to spend time with Pete saying he heard Paula say something offensive to Joe.  Tell Joe to come see me.  Or go find Joe yourself.  But we’ve all played the telephone game and know what happens to messages as they told and re-told through layers of people.
  • Remember that “not reacting now” is not the same as “not reacting.”  This is very important because “not reacting now” is probably the right answer 90% of the time.  Write it down.  Think about it.  Schedule a meeting.  But resist — and I know it’s hard — any action-oriented tendency to “do something” right now.  Once you get a reputation for going off half-cocked it’s pretty hard to shake — and very easy to get manipulated.  Time is usually your friend.
  • Remember, the plural of anecdote is not data.  Hearing the same story or opinion two to three times doesn’t automatically turn it into data.  Use surveys to gather data and use all your feedback conversations to guide topical questioning in those surveys.
  • Go get data.  You should already be running quarterly customer surveys and bi-annual or quarterly employee surveys.  Study the data in them.  Use what you’ve heard listening to people to drive special, topical lines of questioning within them.  Or, if indicated, do a special topic survey.  Once you’ve done the survey, call an optional Town Hall meeting to discuss the results.
  • Remember that 80% of an employee’s experience at your company is shaped by their manager (and, as a corollary that 80% of a customer’s experience is shaped by their account manager).  Ask specific questions about both in your surveys and when hot spots light up, go dig into them (i.e, why are so many of Joe’s employees rating him poorly on management).  Most companies are small enough that the digging can be done by live 1-1 meetings or phone calls.
  • View external data with a skeptical eye.  You can’t ignore the fact that product and company review sites exist.  All review sites have limitations — competitors can launch coordinated attacks to decrease your scores while HR can launch proactive programs to increase your scores.  My controversial advice for CEOs is to ignore these sites yourself and put your VP of Marketing in charge of product review sites and your VP of People on company review sites.  If you start to personally and immediately respond to these public posts, you are basically incenting employees to raise gripes in a public forum, as opposed to a private one such as your employee survey or coming to you directly.

Let me thank Nick for putting an important question on the table.  If you have other tips on how to answer it, please share them here.

The Two Dimensions of Startup Performance

When it comes to evaluating a startup’s performance, I think there are two key, orthogonal questions that need to be examined:

  1. Is the company delivering growth?
  2. Is management in control of your business?

Growth is the primary driver of value creation in a software startup.  I’m not going to quantify what is good vs. bad growth here – it’s a function of too many other variables (e.g., state of market, stage of startup).  For a seed stage company 100% growth (e.g., from $200K to $400K in ARR) is not particularly good, whereas 40% growth off $150M is quite strong.  So, the first question is — given the company’s size and situation — is it delivering good growth?

The second question is whether management is in control of the business.  I evaluate that in two ways:  how often does the company miss its quarterly operating plan targets and how often does the company miss its early-quarter (e.g., week 3) forecast for sales, expenses, and cash burn?

You can combine these two dimensions into a quadrant.

startup perf quadrant

Let’s take a look at companies in each of these quadrants, describe the situation they’re in, and offer some thoughts on what to do.

Moribund Startups
Companies that are moribund are literally on death’s door because they are not creating value through growth and, worse yet, not even in control of their business.  They make annual plans that are too aggressive and continually miss the targets set within them.  Worse yet, they also miss quarterly forecasts, forecasting sales of 100 units in week 3, 80 units in week 12, and delivering sales of only 50 units when the quarter is done.  This erodes the board’s faith in management’s execution and makes it impossible for the company to manage expenses and cash.  Remember Sequoia founder Don Valentine’s famous quote:

“All companies go out of business for the same reason.  They run out of money.” — Don Valentine, Sequoia Capital

While there may be many reasons why a moribund company is not growing, the first priority needs to getting back in control of the business:  setting realistic annual operating plans, achieving them, and having reliable early-quarter (e.g., week 3) forecasts for sales, expense, and cash burn.  I think in their desperation to grow too many moribund startups fail to realize that getting back in control should be done before trying to rejuvenate growth and thus die doing neither.

Put differently, if you’re going to end up delivering sub-par growth, at least forecast it realistically so you will still be in control of your business and thus in a far better position to either turnaround operations or pivot to a better strategic place.  Without control you have nothing, which is what your business will soon be worth if you don’t regain it.

Stuck Startups
Stuck companies face a different set of problems.  The good news is that they are in control of the business:  they make and hit their plans, they come in at or above their forecasts.  Thus, they can manage their business without the risk of suddenly running out of cash.  The bad news is that they’re not delivering sufficient growth and ergo not creating value for the shareholders (e.g., investors, founders, and employees).  Stuck companies need to figure out, quickly, why they’re not growing and how to re-ignite growth.

Possible reasons for stalled growth include:

  • Lack of product-market fit. The company has never established that it solves a problem in the market that people are willing to pay (an amount compatible with your business model) to solve. You may have built something that nobody wants at all, or something that people are not simply willing to pay for.  This situation might call for a “pivot” to an adjacent market.
  • Poor sales & marketing (S&M) execution. While plenty of startups have weak S&M organizations, a lot of deeper problems get blamed by startup boards on S&M.  Why?  Because most boards/investors want to believe that S&M is to blame for company performance problems because S&M issues are easier to fix than the alternatives:  just fire the VP of Sales and/or Marketing and try again.  After all, which would you rather be told by doctor?  That your low-grade fever and weakness is due to the flu or leukemia?  The risk is that through willful misdiagnosis you keep churning S&M executives without fixing (or even focusing on) a deeper underlying problem. [1]
  • Weak competitive positioning. Through some combination of your product and product marketing, customers routinely short-list you as a contender, but buy from someone else.  Think: “we seem to be everyone’s favorite second choice.”  This can be driven by anything from poor product marketing to genuine product shortcomings to purely corporate factors (e.g., such as believing you have a fine product, but that your company will not be a winner in the market).

Stuck companies need to figure out, with as much honesty as possible with themselves, their customers, and their prospects, why they are stuck and then take appropriate steps to fix the underlying causes.  In my opinion, the hard part isn’t the fixes – they’re pretty obvious once you admit the problems.  The hard part is getting to the unpleasant truth of why the company is stuck in the first place. [2]

Unbridled Startups
Like Phaeton driving his father’s chariot [3], the unbridled startup is growing fast, but out of control, and thus risks getting too close to the Sun and burning up or simply smashing into the ground.  Unbridled startups typically are delivering big growth numbers – but often those big numbers are below the even bigger numbers in their aggressive annual operating plan.  The execs dismiss the plan as irrelevant and tell the board to look at growth and market share.  The board looks at the cash burn, noting that the management team — despite delivering amazing growth — is often still under plan on sales and over plan on expenses, generating cash burn that’s much larger than planned.

If the growth stops, these companies burn up, because they are addicted to high cash burn and can suddenly find themselves in the position of not being able to raise money.  So to keep the perpetual motion machine going, they’ll do almost anything to keep growing.  That might include:

  • Raising money on an unattainable plan
  • Raising money on undesirable terms [4] that hurt earlier investors and potentially really hurt the common stock
  • Spending heavily on customer acquisition and potentially hiding that in other areas (e.g., big professional services losses)

Remember that once the Halo is lost, it’s virtually impossible to get back so companies and executives will do almost anything to keep it going.  In some cases, they end up crossing lines that get the business in potentially serious trouble.  [5]

Unbridled companies need to bring in “adult supervision,” but fear doing so because they worry that the professional managers they’ll bring in from larger companies may kill the growth, driven by the company’s aggressive, entrepreneurial founders.  Thus, the board ends up in something of a waiting game:  how long do we bet on the founding/early team to keep driving crazy growth – even if it’s unbridled – before we bring in more seasoned and professional managers?  The smart part about this is realizing the odds of replacing the early team without hurting growth are low, so sometimes waiting really is the best strategy.  In this case, the board is thinking, “OK let’s give this [crazy] CEO one more year” but poised to terminate him/her if growth slows.

The transition can be successfully pulled off – it’s just hard and risky.  I’d argue MongoDB did this well in 2014.  But I’d argue that Anaplan did it not-so-well in 2016, with a fairly painful transition after parting ways with a very growth-oriented CEO, leaving the top job open for nearly 9 months [6].

So, the real question for unbridled companies is when to bridle them and how to do so without killing the golden goose of growth.

Star Startups
There’s not much to say about star startups other than if you’re working at one, don’t quit.  They’re hard to find.  They’re great places to learn.  And it’s sometimes easy to forget you’re working at a star.  I remember when I joined Business Objects.  The company had just gone public the prior year [7], so I had the chance to really dig into their situation by reading the S-1.  “This place is perfect,” I thought, “20-something consecutive quarters of profitable growth, something like only $4M in VC raised, market share leadership, a fundamental patented technology, and a great team — I’m critical as heck and I can’t find a single thing wrong with this place.  This is going to be my first job at a perfect company.”

That’s when I learned that while Business Objects was indeed a star, it was far from a perfect company.  It’s where I learned that there are no perfect companies.  There are always problems.  The difference between great and average companies is not that great companies have fewer problems:  it’s that great companies get what matters right.  Which then begs the question:  what matters?

(Which is an excellent topic for any startup strategy offsite.)

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Notes
[1] One trick I use is to assume that, by default, we’re average in all regards.  If we’re hiring the same profiles, using the same comp plans, setting the same quotas, doing the same onboarding, providing the same kit, then we really should be average:  it’s the most likely outcome.  Then, I look for evidence to find areas where we might be above or below.  This is quite different from a vigilante board deciding “we have a bad sales organization” because of a few misses (or a personal style mismatch) and wanting to immediately replace the VP of sales.  I try to slow the mob by pointing out all the ways in which we are normal and then ask for evidence of areas where we are not.  This helps reduce the chance of firing a perfectly good VP of sales when the underlying problem is product, pricing, or competition.

[2] And that’s why they make high-priced consultants – a shameless plug for my new Dave Kellogg Consulting business.

[3] See Ovid’s version, the one I was raised on.

[4] For example, multiple liquidation preferences.

[5] I seem to have a knack to end up competing with companies who do – e.g., Oracle back in the late 1980s did some pretty dubious stuff but survived its comeuppance with $200M in financing from Nippon Steel (which was a lot of money, back in the day), MicroStrategy in 2000 got itself into trouble with reports of inflated earnings and had to pay nearly $100M in settlements (along with other constraints), Fast Search and Transfer managed to get acquired by Microsoft for $1.2B in the middle of an accounting scandal (and were even referred to by some as the “Enron of Norway”) and after its $11B acquisition by HP, Autonomy was charged with allegations of fraud, some of which are still being litigated.

[6] Yes, you can argue it’s been a successful IPO since then, so the transition didn’t hurt things and perhaps eventually had to happen.  But I’m also pretty sure if you asked the insiders, they would have preferred that the transition went down differently and more smoothly.

[7] I was employee number 266 and the company was already public.  My, how times were different back then.

The Introvert’s Guide to Glad-Handing

One day back at MarkLogic, we invited our local congresswoman, Jackie Speier, to visit our offices.  Regardless of what you may think of her politics, she’s an impressive person with an fascinating background including, for those with long memories, that she was the congressional aide shot five times and left for dead on the runway in Guyana when Congressman Leo Ryan went to investigate Jonestown.  I was looking forward to meeting her.

She arrived — early of course — with a few handlers.  We exchanged the usual greetings and took a few pictures.  Then, she said, “would you mind if I went around and met a few people before the presentation?”  “No, no — not at all,” I said.  Leaving the handlers behind, off she went into the sea of cubicles.

Affordable Care Act

What I saw next blew me away.

Cube by cube she proceeded, “Hi, I’m Jackie — what’s your name?”  “Great, what do you do here?”  “Oh, I see [from the picture on your desk] you have a son, what’s his name?’  “How old is he?”  “Oh, [insert something in common here].”  More chatter.  A few laughs.  “Are there any questions I can answer for you today?”

There are extroverted people.  There are gregarious people.  There are charismatic people.  And then there are politicians.  She was the best room-worker I had ever seen in my life and she did it as effortlessly as she did naturally.

“This,” I thought, ” is why you’re not a politician, Dave. You have no skills.”

But leading the troops is a key part of the job of a startup CEO.  While such glad-handing often comes naturally to sales-oriented CEOs, it usually does not for more product-oriented ones.  A sales-oriented CEO is typically an extrovert; a product-oriented one an introvert.  So what’s a poor introvert to do?

First, Run A Normal Communications Program
All CEOs should run some sort of baseline company communications program.  This could look something like:

  • Bi-annual kickoffs where the company is brought together to hear about progress, learn about new initiatives, and recognize achievement.  Think:  educate, decorate, inebriate.
  • Post-quarter all hands calls/meetings after the off-quarters to discuss company performance, progress on quarterly goals, and go-forward priorities.
  • Topical all-hands emails and follow-up live calls/meeting to announce breaking news and provide commentary.
  • Separate and/or built-in “town hall” sessions with open employee Q&A to the CEO and the exec team.

This is baseline.  If you’re not doing this and you’re over about 20 people you need to start doing aspects of it.  If you’re over 150-200 people you should be doing all of this and quite possibly more.

For most CEOs — even the introverts — this isn’t hard.  It’s structured.  There are presentations.  Most of the questions in Q&A can be anticipated, if not solicited in advance.

Management by Walking Around
Let’s say you’ve set up such a program and are getting good feedback on it.  But nevertheless you’re still getting feedback like:

“You’re in your office and in meetings too much.  People want to see more of you.  The answer isn’t more all hands meetings.  Those are fine.  But people want to see you in a more informal and/or 1-1 way.  I know, you need to do more MBWA — management by walking around.  You’ll be great at it!”

“No, I won’t,” thinks the highly self-aware introvert CEO, imaging a nightmare that goes something like this:

CEO:  “Hey, Bro-dy!” [Struggling to choose between Bro and Buddy.]
Employee:  “Did you just call me grody?  What the –“
CEO:  “No, Buddy, no,  I called you Bro, Pal.”
CEO:  “So, how’s my Buddy doing?”  [Slaps his back.]
Employee:  “Ow!  I just had shoulder surgery.”
CEO:  “Whoops, sorry about that.”
Employee:  “No problem.”
CEO:  [Notices wedding picture on desk.]  “Hey, how’s that lovely wife?”
Employee:  “We split up three months ago.”
CEO:  [Thinking: “I bet this never happens to Jackie Speier, I bet this never happens to … “]

Sure, the CEO thinks, let’s try some more MBWA.  Or maybe not.

Find Your Way
The problem here is simple — it’s a classic, in this case “reverse,” delegation mistake.  The well-intentioned feedback-giver isn’t just telling you what needs to be done (i.e., help people get to know you better through more individualized interaction),  they’re telling you how to do it (i.e., management by walking around).  So the solution is simple:  listen to the what and find your own way of how.  If you’re not a natural grip-and-grin type, them MBWA isn’t going to work for you.  What might?  Here are some ideas:

  • Every Friday morning do three, half-hour 1-1s with employees across the organization.  This will play to your introvert strength in 1-1 meetings and and your desire to have substantial, not superficial, interactions with people.  If you’re disciplined, you’ll get to know 156 people/year this year.
  • Management by sitting in the way (MBSITW).  Pick a busy spot — e.g., the coffee room or the cafeteria — and camp out there for a few hours every week.  Work on your laptop when no one’s around but when someone walks in, say hi, and engage in a 1-1 chat.
  • Small-group town hall Q&A sessions.  Attend one department’s group meeting and do a one-hour town hall Q&A.  It’s not quite 1-1, but it’s definitionally a smaller forum which will provide more intimacy.
  • Thursday lunches.  Every Thursday have lunch with 3-4 people chosen at semi-random so as to help you build relationships across the organisation.

So, the next time someone tells you that you need to do more MBWA, thank them for input, and then go find your way of solving the underlying problem.

Video of my SaaStr 2019 Presentation: The Five Questions Startup CEOs Worry About

A few days ago, Jason Lemkin from SaaStr sent me a link to the video of my SaaStr Annual 2019 conference presentation, The Five Questions Startup CEOs Worry About. Those questions, by the way, are:

  1. When do I next raise money?
  2. Do I have the right team?
  3. How can I better manage the board?
  4. To what extent should I worry about competition?
  5. Are we focused enough?

Below is the video of the thirty-minute presentation.  The slides are available on Slideshare.

As mentioned in the presentation, I love to know what’s resonating out there, so if you ever have a moment where you think –“Hey, I just used something from Dave’s presentation!” — please let me know via Twitter or email.